注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

每日小抄在网易

【每日小抄】的网易同步博客

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

我的小站:『每日小抄』http://meirixiaochao.com/

网易考拉推荐

『华盛顿邮报』狱中人口比例全球最高 美国人对监狱的五大误解  

2011-06-22 10:32:36|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Five myths about Americans in prison
对狱中美国人的五大误解

    By Marc Mauer and David Cole

    No country on Earth imprisons more people per capita than the United States. But for America, mass incarceration has proved a losing proposition. The Supreme Court recently found California’s overcrowded prisons unconstitutional, and state legislators want to cut the vast amounts of public money spent on prison warehousing.
    美国是全球监狱人口占人口比例最高的国家。但对美国来说,集中管制的监狱制度已经被证明是亏本生意了。最高法院最近宣布加州监狱人口过剩的问题是违反宪法的,而州议员们也希望能削减花在监狱制度上的大量公费。

    Why are so many Americans in prison, and which ones can be safely released? Let’s address some common misunderstandings about our incarceration problem.
    为什么美国的监狱人口如此巨大呢?其中又有哪些是可以被安全地释放的呢?下面让我们来看看若干对监狱系统的常见误解。

    1. Crime has fallen because incarceration has risen.
    1、犯罪率的降低是因为监禁率的上升

    U.S. crime rates are the lowest in 40 years, but it’s not clear how much of this drop is a result of locking up more people.
    目前美国的犯罪率是40年来的最低点,但关押更多的人到底对此有多大贡献还很难说。

    In Canada, for example, violent crime declined in the 1990s almost as much as it did in the United States. Yet, Canada’s prison population dropped during this time, and its per capita incarceration rate is about one-seventh that of the United States. Moreover, while U.S. incarceration rates have steadily risen for four decades, our crime rate has fluctuated — rising through the 1970s, falling and then rising in the 1980s, and falling since 1993.
    举例说,加拿大1990年代暴力犯罪的情况跟美国一样有所下降,但同期其狱中人口的数量也一样下降了,目前其人均监禁率只是美国的约七分之一。此外,虽然美国的监禁率在过去四十年间持续上升,但犯罪率却有涨有跌。1970年代有所上升,而80年代则先降后升,自1993年开始才持续下降。

    Harvard University sociologist Bruce Western believes that increased incarceration accounts for only about 10 percent of the drop in crime rates; William Spelman, a professor of public affairs at the University of Texas, puts the figure at about 25 percent. Even if the higher figure is accurate, three-quarters of the crime decline had nothing to do with imprisonment. Other causes include changes in drug markets, policing strategies and community initiatives to reshape behavior.
    哈佛大学社会学专家Bruce Western认为监禁率的上升对犯罪率的下降只起到了10%的贡献;得克萨斯州大学公共事务的教授William Spelman则把这个数字定在25%。即便这个较高的数字是准确的,那也有四分之三罪案的减少跟监禁没有任何关系。其他的原因包括毒品市场的变迁、警方战略以及社区重建的措施等。

    2. The prison population is rising because more people are being sentenced to prison.
    2、监狱人口持续增多是因为有更多人被判入狱

    In the 1980s and early 1990s, the number of people sent to prison grew mainly because of the war on drugs. The number of drug offenders sentenced to state prisons increased by more than 300 percent from 1985 to 1995.
    1980年代和1990年代早期被判入狱者人数大增主要是因为当时的禁毒战争。1985年至1995年间,因涉毒而被判进入州立监狱的人数增长了300%有余。

    Since then, however, longer prison terms more than new prison sentences have fueled the prison population expansion. These are a result of mandatory sentencing measures such as “three strikes” laws and limits on parole release. Today, 140,000 prisoners, or one of 11 inmates, are incarcerated for life, many with no chance of parole.
    然后,自此以后监狱人口的暴增更多的则是因为长期徒刑犯而非新入狱者。产生这一现象的原因是“三犯加刑”这样的法规以及对假释的限制。目前有14万囚犯在服终身监禁,其中很多都无权假释,也就是说每11个囚犯中就有1个。

    Longer stays in prison offer diminishing returns for public safety. As prisoners age, the likelihood that they will commit crimes drops, but the cost of their imprisonment rises, primarily because of increased medical care. Harsher sentences also offer little deterrence: When people consider committing crimes, they may think about whether they will be caught, but probably not about how harshly they will be punished. In 1999, the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University reviewed studies of deterrence and sentencing and found no basis “for inferring that increasing the severity of sentences generally is capable of enhancing deterrent effects.”
    增加服刑时间将减少其入狱后对社会安全的威胁。随着囚犯年龄的增长,其再犯罪的可能性也会降低。但关押他们的成本就上升了,主要是因为医疗护理费用的增加。更严厉的判刑产生的威慑作用也微乎其微,当人们考虑犯罪时,他们想到的是是否会被抓,而不是可能判刑的严重程度。1999年剑桥大学犯罪学研究所回顾了关于威慑力与判刑的研究,结果发现没有证据显示“增加刑罚力度可以加强威慑作用”。

    3. Helping prisoners rejoin society will substantially reduce the prison population.
    3、帮助囚犯重新加入社会将大大减少监狱人口

    Ninety-five percent of American prisoners will return home someday. While reentry programs can aid reintegration into the community, they do little to reduce our reliance on incarceration. Prison appears to make inmates as likely to commit crime as not; about half of released inmates return to prison within three years. Congress appropriated only $83 million for reentry in fiscal year 2011, or less than $120 per released prisoner. Even with additional state funds, one is not likely to overcome a lifetime of low educational attainment, substance abuse and/or mental health disabilities with this meager commitment.
    95%的美国囚犯都会重回监狱。虽然有重返社会的项目帮助他们重头开始,但这对于降低监禁率并没多大帮助。监狱的经历和入狱者是否再犯罪几乎没有联系。半数刑满释放人员都会在三年内重返监狱。国会在2011财年拨给重返社会项目的预算只有8300万美元,也就是说每个出狱者不到120美元。即使有更多的国家基金,帮助那些从未受过足够教育,有毒瘾或者心理问题的人重头来过也很难实现。

    Investing in prevention and treatment instead of imprisonment is more likely to shrink the prison population. The Washington State Institute for Public Policy, for example, found that home-based supervision of juvenile offenders produced $28 in taxpayer benefits for every dollar invested.
    把花在建于上的钱用于预防与治疗方面可能更能减少监狱人口。华盛顿州公共政策研究所就发现家中监禁少年犯的方法可以让每美元的投入为纳税人产出28美元的收益。

    4. There’s a link between race and crime.
    4、种族跟犯罪没有关系

    Yes, African Americans and Latinos disproportionately commit certain crimes. But in a 1996 study of crime rates in Columbus, Ohio, criminologists from Ohio State University concluded that socioeconomic disadvantages “explain the overwhelming portion of the difference in crime.”
    非裔和拉美裔人确实会犯下更多某些类型的罪行。但一项1996年关于俄亥俄州哥伦布市犯罪率的研究则显示这些人口经济社会地位的弱势“解释了其压倒性犯罪率的原因”。

    Nowhere are racial disparities in criminal justice more evident than in drug law enforcement. In 2003, black men were nearly 12 times more likely to be sent to prison for a drug offense than white men. Yet, national household surveys show that whites and African Americans use and sell drugs at roughly the same rates. African Americans, who are 12 percent of the population and about 14 percent of drug users, make up 34 percent of those arrested for drug offenses and 45 percent of those serving time for such offenses in state prisons. Why?
    现在刑事司法上的种族差异比禁毒执法中更加明显。2003年,黑人因涉毒入狱的可能性是白人的12倍。但全国家庭调查则显示白人与黑人使用、贩卖毒品的比例相差无几。占总人口数12%的非裔美国人中有约14%吸毒者,但涉毒被捕的人口中却有34%都是黑人,被判入狱的里黑人的比例更是有45%。为什么?

    In large measure, because police find drugs where they look for them. Inner-city, open-air drug markets are easier to bust than those that operate out of suburban basements, and numerous studies show that minorities are stopped by police more often than whites. For example, a Center for Constitutional Rights study found that 87 percent of the 575,000 people stopped by the police in New York City in 2009 were African American or Latino.
    大部分原因是因为警察先找人再找毒品。城市里的露天毒品交易比郊区地下室中的更容易被抓获。也有大量研究显示少数民族比白人更容易被警察拦截。比如说一项宪法权利中心的研究显示57.5万被纽约警察截停的人口中有87%都是非裔或拉美裔美国人。

    5. Racial disparities in incarceration reflect police and judges’ racial prejudice.
    5、狱中的种族差异反应了警察和法官的种族歧视

    Shocking instances of racism still come to light in the justice system. But racist cops and courts are not the primary reason for racial disparities in incarceration.
    司法系统中让人吃惊的种族歧视实例依然屡屡见光,但种族歧视的警察和法官却不是狱中人口种族差异的主要原因。

    Consider increased penalties for drug offenses in school zones. Though not racially motivated, these laws disproportionately affect minorities, who more often live in densely populated urban areas with many nearby schools. In New Jersey, for example, 96 percent of people incarcerated under such laws in 2005 were African American or Latino. Judges didn’t necessarily want to sentence these defendants to more prison time than those convicted outside school zones, but under the law, they had to.
    比如说,学校附近区域的涉毒犯罪将被加重处罚。虽然不是出于种族歧视的动机,但这些法令主要作用在的就是少数民族身上,因为这些人大都居住在人口稠密的城市地区,大部分都离学校不远。以新泽西州为例,2005年因这样的法规被重判的人中96%都是非裔或拉美裔。法官不一定就真想给这些人判下比校区以外犯罪者更多的服刑年数,但按照法律,他们必须这么做。

    Where we spend money also contributes to the problem. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 appropriated $9.7 billion for prisons and $13.6 billion for law enforcement, but only $6.1 billion for crime prevention. Politicians eager to be seen as tough on crime too often find ways to fund new prison cells, even though they know that minorities will predominantly fill them. This isn’t the fault of racist individuals. It’s the fault of a system that fails to take the promise of equality seriously.
    政府投资的地点对此也有影响。1994年的暴力犯罪控制与强制法案为监狱带来了97亿美元的拨款,136亿给了执法系统,但只有61亿美元被用于预防犯罪。政客们希望树立自己打击犯罪的强硬形象,因此想方设法拨钱新建监狱,虽然他们也知道少数民族很快就会把这些牢房挤满。这不是有种族歧视的个人的错,这是整个系统无法信守其平等待遇的程度的错。

    The United States imprisons a larger proportion of its population than Russia or Belarus. Our incarceration rate is eight times that of France. These tragic statistics force us to ask: Would the American public accept these rates if incarceration were distributed more equally across race and class?
    美国的狱中人口占人口总数的比例比俄国甚至白俄罗斯还大。我们的监禁率是法国的八倍。这些悲惨的数据迫使我们发问:要是监狱人口的比例在各个阶层各个种族都同样平均,美国公众还会依然这样坦然接受吗?

    Marc Mauer is executive director of the Sentencing Project. David Cole is a professor at Georgetown University Law Center.
    Marc Mauer 量刑项目的执行主管,David Cole 是乔治城大学法律中心的教授.

    原文链接:华盛顿邮报

      评论这张
     
    阅读(1106)| 评论(0)
    推荐 转载

    历史上的今天

    评论

    <#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    页脚

    网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017