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『双语』基督科学箴言报:穆斯林斋月5要点  

2011-08-03 23:28:04|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Ramadan 101: Five facts about the holy month of Ramadan
斋月第一课:关于穆斯林斋月的五大事实

Muslims around the world will begin celebrating Ramadan today. Throughout the month-long holiday, they will fast from dawn to dusk. Ramadan is happening at the heart of summer this year, posing a greater challenge than normal for those observing the fast.
世界各地的穆斯林都将在今天开始庆祝斋月。在这一长达一月的节日里,他们将在黎明到黄昏之间禁食。今年的斋月正好是盛夏,这对斋戒者来说将会是更大的挑战。

The start of Ramadan is determined by the moon
斋月的开始是由月亮决定的

The exact start of Ramadan is often up in the air until just before the holiday begins because it is determined by a sighting of the new moon. Many places still depend on someone seeing the new moon with the naked eye in order to declare the holiday. As a result, Ramadan’s start can vary from place to place because of weather conditions and other factors that affect how easily the moon is seen.
斋月的确切起点一般直到庆典即将到来时才能最终决定,因为这是由新月出现的时间决定的。很多地方依然还有专人负责观察新月,以用肉眼能看到新月的时间决定斋月开始。结果就是斋月的起点在各地都会有不同,因为天气以及其他因素很容易影响月亮能否被看到。

However, countries are increasingly relying on astronomical calculations and observatories, leading to a more uniform start time. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, the United Arab Emirates,Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, and Yemen all declared today the official start of the holiday, according toMSNBC.
不过,各国越来越多地开始倚重天文计算和观测站来确定更加统一的起始点。据MSNBC电视台报道,埃及,黎巴嫩沙特阿拉伯阿拉伯联合酋长国约旦科威特,卡塔尔,和也门都确定今天是斋月的正式开始。

The date changes every year
斋月日期每年都在变

Islam functions on a lunar calendar that doesn’t quite line up with the solar Gregorian calendarthat the secular world uses. So while Muslim holidays are always the same day on the Muslim calendar, they happen on different days on the Gregorian calendar – typically moving 11 or 12 days earlier each year. In 2010, Ramadan began on Aug. 11.
穆斯林使用的是月亮历,这和现在国际通用太阳公历并不同步。因此按照穆斯林历法,穆斯林的节日都是固定的日期,但公历上看就每年都不一样了,一般来说每年都会提前11或12天。2010年的斋月就开始在8月11日。

What is the purpose of Ramadan?
斋月的目的是什么?

During Ramadan, observers are expected to abstain from food, drink, and other pleasures from dawn to dusk. Removing these comforts from daily routine is intended to focus the mind on prayer, spirituality, and charity and to purify the body and mind. Muslims are also expected to abstain from impurities such as gossip and watching pornography.
斋月期间,信徒们必须放弃食物、饮料以及其他乐趣,从黎明到黄昏。将这些日常生活的舒适摈除是为了将心灵专注到祈祷、灵性以及慈悲,从而净化身心。穆斯林还必须放弃说人是非以及观看色情制品等不纯洁的行为。

A month of big changes
充满巨变的一个月

In countries where Muslims are the majority, Ramadan has a drastic impact on daily life. Egypt pushes the clocks back an hour during the holy month so that the fast feels like it is ending earlier and the evenings are lengthened. Work days are made shorter during the month to accommodate the additional time spent in prayer and in enjoying festive meals to end the daily fast.
在穆斯林为主体的国家,斋月对日常生活影响很大。埃及将斋月期间的时间调快一小时,这样人们就会感觉天黑地早了,夜晚也会更长。上班时间也会在这个月缩短,留给人们更多的时间来祈祷以及在禁食结束后更好的饱餐畅饮。

According to bankers and economists in Muslim countries, Ramadan almost always ushers in a month-long period of inflation as people drastically increase the amount of money spent on clothing and food. The prices of certain staples go up dramatically – according to a former Monitor correspondent in Cairo, during Ramadan a cup of tea can cost six times its normal price. However, economic productivity also declines because of the shorter working hours and the general malaise among those abstaining from food and water all day.
据穆斯林国家的银行家和经济学家称,斋月几乎每次都会带来长达一个月的通货膨胀。因为在这期间人们会在衣服和食品上花费大增。某些日常用品的价格会急剧上升,据一名开罗的前记者称,在斋月期间一杯茶可以买到原价的六倍。但经济生产力也也会下降,因为工作时间被缩短了,整天不能吃喝也会带来身体上的不适。

Ironically, many people gain weight during Ramadan. They are more sedentary during the daytime, eat richer food than normal at the fast-breaking iftar meal in the evenings, and get the majority of their daily calories at night, shortly before they go to sleep.
具有讽刺意味的是,很多人都会在斋月变胖。因为白天时他们坐着不动的时间更多,而傍晚就会吃下比平时更加油腻的食物,大部分卡路里都是在夜晚摄入的,吃进去后不久就去睡觉了。

Exceptions to the fast
免于斋戒者

Several different groups are excused from fasting during Ramadan: pregnant women, people who are mentally or physically ill, and sometimes women who are breastfeeding. Children are not obligated to fast until they hit puberty, although many choose to observe the fast at least part of the month in preparation for later years.
有若干族群都是在斋月可以免斋戒的:孕妇、精神或者身体有疾病的人,以及有些母乳喂养孩子的妇女。青春期之前的孩子都不需要斋戒,不过不少大一点的孩子都会选择斋戒,至少是斋月后期几天。

With Ramadan now coming in the hottest months of the year – Baghdad declared Aug. 1 a public holiday because of the 120-degree-plus temperatures and lack of electricity for air conditioning – other exceptions have been made for the safety of those fasting.
今年斋月是一年中最热的时候,巴格达已经将八月一日定为全国假期,因为当地的120度高温以及电力不足无法供应空调的情况。同时也有不少人因安全原因被免于斋戒。

Last year, a religious body in the United Arab Emirates issued a fatwa, allowing workers to break the fast if they needed to. Similar religious proclamations are likely to come down this year, with some Muslims facing days that begin at 4 a.m. and don’t end until after 8 p.m., depending on how far north they live.
去年一个阿拉伯酋长国的宗教组织下令,允许工人在必要的时候破戒进食。今年也很可能有类似的命令下达,毕竟对部分北部穆斯林来说斋戒将从早上四点一直持续到晚上八点。

原文链接:基督科学箴言报

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